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Download the complete LINGUISTICS project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled TRANSLATION: A PANACEA FOR BRIDGING COMMUNICATION GAP IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM  here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

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  • Name: TRANSLATION: A PANACEA FOR BRIDGING COMMUNICATION GAP IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM
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ABSTRACT

Translation as a vehicle for effective communication has contributed in so many ways in education, information dissemination, cultural transfer, etcetera. However, in the rural area where majority are not literate in the use of English language, translation seems not to have been effectively utilized as government communicates to the teeming population there mainly in the English language, which is the country’s official language. As a result, there is a total breakdown in communication as the masses are kept in the dark about activities of government, some of which require participation by the people. This has devastatingly affected the pace of rural development. The question is whether translated materials can enhance information dissemination at the rural area considering that many people can hardly read materials written in their indigenous language? This study intends to provide answer to this question. In the end, we hope to contribute towards the efficiency of local government system as a veritable tool for grassroots mobilization. We investigated the impact of Igbo translation of the law stopping all forms of traditional/ cultural maltreatment against anyone who loses spouse and the law permitting women to bear children by the Women’s Aid Collective (WACOL). We were guided by five research questions and four hypotheses in the formulation of the questionnaires used in gathering information. We first used systematic sampling technique to select the 15 Local Governments sampled for this study and later applied random sampling technique to distribute the questionnaires. Our analyses were presented in tables with each table accompanied by a description of the decision arising from the analyses. We presented summary of our findings based on the result of our analyses. Our conclusion is that the people at the rural area are not always aware of the translated versions of government policies and programmes. As a result, translation has not contributed much in information dissemination at the rural area. Government should therefore ensure that these policies and programmes, which are originally in the English language, are translated into the indigenous languages and circulated widely to the people for their understanding and appreciation. We made some recommendations which we hope will help to ameliorate the problems.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page……………………………………………………… i Certification…………………………………………………… ii Approval Page………………………………………………….. iii Dedication……………………………………………………… iv Acknowledgement……………………………………………… v Abstract………………………………………………………… vii Table of Contents………………………………………………. viii

Chapter One – Introduction 1.1 Background of the Study………………………………… 1 1.2 Statement of the Problem………………………………… 6 1.3 Research Questions……………………………………….. 7 1.4 Objectives of the Study…………………………………… 7 1.5 Significance of the Study…………………………………. 8 1.6 Research Hypotheses……………………………………… 9 1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study………………………… 10 1.8 About the Translated Law…………………………………. 10

Chapter Two Literature Review 2.1 What is Translation?………………………………………………………………. 12 2.2 Purpose of Translation and its Relevance to Communication…….. 13 2.3 What are the Policies and Programmes of Government that can be translated?……………………………………………………………………………… 16 2.4 Who Does the Translation?……………………………………………………….. 20 2.5 Theoretical Frameworks……………………………………………. 21 2.5.1 Relevance Theory…………………………………………………… 22 2.5.2 Functional Theories………………………………………………… 23 2.5.3 Issue of Equivalence when Translating for Communication……….. 25

Chapter Three – Methodology

3.1 The Design of the Study……………………………………………. 28 3.2 Population of the Study…………………………………………….. 28 3.3 Sample Size………………………………………………………… 28 3.4 Sources of Data Collection…………………………………………. 29 3.5 Survey Instruments to be used……………………………………… 30 3.5.1 Questionnaire Survey Instrument………………………………….. 30 3.5.2 Interview Survey Instrument………………………………………. 30
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3.5.3 Documentary Survey Instrument………………………………….. 31 3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument…………………………. 31 3.7 Questionnaire Administration and Collection……………………… 31 3.8 Method of Data Analysis…………………………………………… 32

Chapter Four – Data Presentation, Analysis and Findings

4.1 Data Presentation ……………………………………………………….. 33 4.2 Research Findings…………………………………………………… 50

Chapter Five – Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary and Conclusion………………………………………… 53 5.2 Recommendations………………………………………………… 55

References ……………………………………………………….. 58 Appendices……………………………………………………….. 62

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
Many researchers have in the past looked at various uses of translation in
solving problems of the society. For example, there have been studies on
the use of translation in literature (literary translation), the communicative
use of translation where issues such as ‘Translation in Nigerian
Languages for the Mass, Print and Electronic Media’, etcetera were
treated. This current study has tried to focus on local government system
with a view to finding out the relevance of translation in bridging
communication gap in the local area.

Local government system was established in Nigeria for the main aim of
bringing government activities closer to the people at the grassroots level.
It was believed that by creating the local government system, the people
at the grassroots will always be aware of government policies and
programmes and be able to participate in government activities for the
good of the rural area. Nwokike (2006:232) captures this fact where he
observes that local governments serve two broad purposes of:
1. enabling many public services to be provided at a level nearer to
the people whom the services benefit;
2. enabling local political opinion to be organized and expressed

Oyediran (1998:40) also succinctly present the reasons for the creation of
Local Government as follows:
1. Local Government is created to provide certain basic services for
the citizens at the local level;
2

2. Local government is the nearest government to the citizens at the
local level;
3. Through local government, local people jointly solve common
problems and needs, which could not be solved by the individual
alone;
4. Local government gives the citizens the opportunity to practice
democracy;
5. Local government is a useful instrument for the central and state
governments in the governance of a country.

The Political Bureau set up by the Babangida administration in 1986 in its
main report (Report of the Political Bureau, March 1987:120)
acknowledged this fact where it stated that local government is a viable
instrument for rural transformation and for the delivery of social services
to the people. The Bureau further states that local governments are best
equipped to transform rural areas as a result of the following factors:
1. Proximity to the people: – People at the grassroot are only able to
understand and organize local government because they are able to
feel its presence and impact on their day-to-day activities.
2. Responsiveness: – A government operating at the grassroot level is
more likely to be attuned to the needs of the people.
3. Simplicity of Operation: – Local government organizations are
usually not complex and generally do not really require
sophisticated and highly qualified personnel for effective
performance.

Problem, however, arises where more than half of the populations at the
grassroots are not literate in English language, which is the official
3

language of Nigeria. Momoh (1993) in Akeredolu-Ale (1993:16) notes
that this situation forces the rural communities to play a secondary role,
usually as observers, rather than active participants in matters affecting
their lives.

Since more than half of the population cannot understand English
language, how then can information on policies and programmes of
government be communicated to them? How can information on the
happenings around the world be communicated to them at this period of
globalization? The need for proper information dissemination cannot be
over-emphasized. The world is presently a global village whereby
whatever affects people in one part affects other people in other parts. A
case at hand is the recent economic meltdown, which affected the entire
world, and every nation is seriously battling to come out of it. The stock
market was affected both locally and internationally.

The purpose of a particular act of communication, according to Knowles
in Hickey (1998:103), may be to transmit to somebody a message, which
results in the increment of the recipient’s knowledge. Umanah in
Akeredolu-Ale (1993:163) also succinctly identifies that the central
purpose of communication is the mobilization of the rural population for
rural development.

Language is a vehicle for communication, but language for
communication must be one that must be understood by the receiver of
the information, otherwise, there would be communication gap.
Communication gap is mainly caused by language barrier and illiteracy
(Okigbo and Nsiegbunam, 2000:290; Nwokike, 2006:55; James, Ode and
4

Soola (1990) quoted by Oden in Ndimele, 2004:126; Oden in Ndimele,
2004:126). Therefore, translation could serve as the only option.

Uwaezuoke (2002:29) had quoted Mamu (2000) as saying, “If local
government which is the third tier of government must function more
effectively and efficiently than before, the grassroots should be sensitized
to participate in development projects. This can be achieved by relating
effectively with the communities to offer themselves for participation in
development programmes”. He argues that without the participation of
the communities, the objectives of local government could not be
achieved. In line with this view, the Presidential Committee on Review of
1999 Constitution (PCRC) in its main report, volume I (2001) pointed out
that the Committee was cautious in considering the issues canvassed for
an acceptable local government system to take account of the
development needs of vast majority of Nigerians to whom local
government is closest.

How then can the grassroots be sensitized? Using English language as has
always been the case would continue to be counter-productive. The
situation therefore, calls for indigenous language option.

Odunlami (1999:105) suggests the broadcast of more programmes on
both the radio and television in local languages, while the print media
should endeavour to produce and circulate more vernacular newspapers.
Umanah (1993) in Akeredolu-Ale (1993:168) also recommends the
sponsoring of special local language supplements for targeted rural
populations and for special mobilization projects when and if
circumstances become compelling.
5

This study equally upholds the view that translation of government
policies and programmes as well as other necessary information from
other parts of the world from our official language, which is English
and/or other foreign language(s), to our indigenous languages will
immensely contribute in breaking the communication gap existing at the
rural areas. This is because by translating them into the indigenous
languages, communication with the rural communities would be made
easy as they can understand and fully participate through shared ideas.
For as put by House (2009:3); “with translation, however, communicative
events are reduplicated for people originally prevented from participating
in, or appreciating, the original events”.

However, it is one thing to translate government policies and programmes
into the indigenous languages and another thing for the target audience to
be aware of that or understand the translation. This is because many
people cannot read materials written in their indigenous language.

We have therefore in this study tried to find out whether the translated
materials would have any effect on information dissemination at the
grassroots. We intend to investigate the impact of Igbo translation of the
law stopping all forms of traditional/ cultural maltreatment against
anyone who loses spouse and the law permitting women to bear children
by the Women’s Aid Collective (WACOL).

6

1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problem the researcher focuses on is the inadequate mobilization of
the people at the rural area for grassroots development and the role
translation plays as a viable means of breaking the jinx.

Nigeria adopted the English language as the official language of the
nation because of the multilingual nature of the country, which made it
difficult for the different ethnic nationalities to understand one another.
But the vast majority of Nigerians who live at the rural area are not
literate in the use of the English language. As a result, rather than solving
the problem of communication, the adoption of the English language for
the nation worsens the situation as communication to the people at the
rural area becomes almost impossible. This leads to breakdown in
communication and the masses kept in the dark about activities of
government some of which require participation by the people. This
situation negatively affects the pace of rural development.

This study opines that government policies and programmes as well as
other information that are for the consumption of the people should be
translated into the indigenous language for easy communication and
implementation.

We do not, however, loose sight of the fact that not everybody can read
materials written in their indigenous languages. Against this backdrop,
this work intends to find out how far translated materials can go in
enhancing information dissemination at the rural area. Our result enabled
us to make useful suggestions.

7

1.3 Research Questions
In order to locate possible solution to the research problem, the following
questions have been asked:
(1) Are government policies and programmes translated into the
indigenous language?
(2) Are the rural people aware of the translated versions of government
policies and programmes?
(3) How far has translation contributed in information dissemination at
the grassroots?
(4) How far has translation of government policies and programmes
ensured good governance in the local government system?
(5) Are the translated versions of the government policies and
programmes made available to the people at the grassroots?

1.4 Objectives of the Study
The decision to investigate on this area of research resulted from the very
problem of poor information dissemination to the vast majority of the
people living at the rural area and the need to find a way of making local
government system more effective.
Apart from giving the reader a general idea of the relevance of translation
to modern day communication, this study is designed to examine the
following:

1. Whether government policies and programmes are translated into
the
indigenous language of the target audience.
8

2. Whether the translation of government policies and programmes
into indigenous languages can actually bridge the communication
gap in the rural area;
3. How aware the people at the rural area are about translated
versions of the government policies and programmes.
4. The medium for letting the people at the rural area know about the
translated materials.
5. How far translated versions have enabled the effective
implementation of government policies and programmes.

1.5 Significance of the Study
Local government is a grassroots government aimed at bringing
government activities closer to the people as well as mobilizing them for
participation in government activities. The reverse, however, seems to be
the case in virtually all the local governments throughout the federation
as the rural people are deprived of the activities of government because of
communication gap and some other factors. As a result, a lot of people
remain in doubt about the usefulness of local government system.

Researchers had in the past proffered solutions on how to make local
governments more effective. This study is not unmindful of all those past
contributions but hopes that through this angle, it would add to various
suggestions/ recommendations on how best to make local government
system more effective.

Moreover, this study is considered timely as the National Assembly is
presently on the move to amend the 1999 Constitution. Therefore, our
recommendations shall hopefully be communicated to the National
9

Assembly and it would assist them in arriving at fruitful enactment on
local government system. The Daily Independent Newspaper in its
edition on Friday, May 28, 2010:7 reported that the Anambra State Governor, Mr. Peter Obi, had on Thursday, 6th May 2010 signed into Law
a bill to enforce the speaking and writing of the Igbo language and its
wide use among the Igbo in the State and outside. The Newspaper also
quoted the Governor as saying that the Igbo language would henceforth
be compulsory in all educational institutions in the State, just like English
and Mathematics. It is our belief that the result of our investigations shall
ginger the state government to see the need to have government policies
and programmes translated into Igbo language for the benefit of the rural
communities.

1.6 Research Hypotheses
For the purpose of this study and based on the questions asked, the
following hypotheses have been formulated:
(1.) Government policies and programmes are translated into the
indigenous language of the target audience.
(2.) The rural people are aware of the translated versions of government
policies and programmes.
(3.) Translation has contributed immensely to information
disseminationat the grassroots.
(4.) Translation of government policies and programmes has ensured
good governance in the local government system.

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1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Although this study intends to investigate the impact of translation in
bridging communication gap in the rural area, it will be difficult for us to
cover all the local government areas in the federation. This is because the
size of the local government areas in Nigeria is so vast that one can
hardly investigate all within the limited time allowed for this research to
be concluded. Neither will it be easy for us to investigate all the local
government areas in Anambra State.

Therefore, to work within the ambits of this study, we are limiting
ourselves to Anambra State. We shall further limit ourselves to fifteen out
of the twenty-one local government areas in Anambra State.

1.8 About The Translated Law
The Law known as “Anambra State of Nigeria 2005, Laws No. 5 and 7”
seek to stop all forms of maltreatments permitted by culture against the
widows/ widowers, and to empower women on child-bearing.

The Laws, which were passed by the Anambra State House of Assembly
and signed into Law in 2005 by the then Executive Governor, Dr. Chris
Nwabueze Ngige, is made up of twelve (12) sections.

The Law was considered very vital because of the need to stop all forms
of culture permitted inhuman treatment being meted to the widows. Prior
to its passage, many churches and organizations had continued to kick
against such ill treatments, as they are crimes against humanity. A lot of
communiqué had in the past been issued by those groups to condemn
such acts. For example, the Anglican Diocese on the Niger had in one of
11

her synods condemned such acts and even gone ahead to prohibit that
among her faithful. But the stumbling block was the language in which
this law was written (English). With the translation of this law into our
indigenous language, the effective understanding and implementation of
it is what we are battling out to reap its proceeds.

Among the groups that fight this ugly menace is the Women’s Aid
Collective (WACOL). This is a non-governmental organization
established by a group known as African Commission on Human and
People’s Right (ACHPR). Its main objective is to fight for people’s
freedom in Africa.

The Women’s Aid Collective (WACOL) also stands out to fight for the
right of the children and the youth, women and men, to ensure that
everybody is given his rightful place in the society. This accounted for
why it saw the need for this Law to permeate all the nooks and crannies
of the Igbo land especially to the people of Anambra State for whom it
was made by having it translated from English language into the Igbo
language.

The translation was necessitated by the fact that majority of the people of
Anambra State who reside in the rural area are not literate in the use of
the English language, the official language of Nigeria. If the Law should
be left to remain as passed in the English language, a lot of people might
end up not being aware of its existence and therefore, the aim of enacting
it would be defeated.

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